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Myanmar Historical Reference

1st century BC: The “Pyu” established city states in the center of the country.

AD 5th century: The “Mon” settled in the fertile coastal plains which extend from the delta of Ayeyarwady River until the west of present Cambodia.

AD 9th century: The Mongols, origin of east of the Himalaya, invaded Myanmar, moved the first “Pyu” towards the heart of Myanmar.

1044: Anawrahta, the first king-founder of dynasty and the kingdom of Bagan unified for the first time Myanmar. He introduced “Theravada Buddhism” with the assistance of a missionary monk Shin Arahan, from Thaton. At this period, Anawrahta developed agriculture, power in Rakhine region, the Shan state and the Mon kingdom. The “pali” language became the religious crowned language and the “Mon” language became literary language of Myanmar. King Anawrahta’s most remarkable “works of merit” are Shwezigon stupa, Shwesandaw stupa and Lowkanandar stupa, all are located in Bagan. The golden age of Bagan was until the end of 13th century.

1364: Shan princes founded again, Innwa Kingdom, near present Mandalay. On the west coast, the “Rakhine” (or Arakanais) founded “Mrauk-U U” (Myo Haung), as a Buddhist Kingdom which could compete as Bagan.

1550: Events of king “Bayinnaung” from Taunggu. His Taunggu dynasty managed to reunify the country. At the 18th century where French, Dutch and British fought for the control of the Southeast Asia, the Taunggu dynasty disappeared due to the consequences of Mon revolts supported by French.

1824: The British declared the war with Myanmar (Burmese). Under the treaty of Yandabo, a British "governor" took the control of several areas.

1852: Second Anglo-Burmese war. Lower Myanmar (and its immense rice and teak reserves) became the province of the Indian empire.

1885: British seized Mandalay palace and upper Myanmar. They annexed the country into British India Empire. The Indians came to settle in mass in the country.

1942: During the Second World War, Japanese penetrated the country and initially raised the “Burmese National Army”, carried out by Aung San (future "father founder" of independent Burma) against British and proclaimed his independence. However, the end of the war, the national army was allied to British to push the Japanese.

1948: 4th January, Myanmar (Burma) became independent and quitted the Commonwealth. The new government of U Nu was confronted with the disintegration of the country, with the various rebellion groups: hill tribes, communists, the “Mon”, and many other...

1962: General Ne Win, with the head of a military government, seized the power and imposed a socialist mode. The policy of "Burmese Socialist Program Party” resulted in much nationalization.

1988: Following demonstrations in favor of the democracy, U Ne Win retired in July. In September, a coup d'état brings the power to SLORC, State Law and Order Restoration Council.

1989: The country takes the name of “Union of Myanmar”.

2005: The new administrative capital “Naypyitaw” is founded, near Pyinmana, located at some 380 km in the north of Yangon.


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